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Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Average is a useful tool for making comparison of different quantities of the same category.
For example, we use averages to compute the per capita income of a country because of the there are differences in the incomes of diverse people. However, there are limitations to the use of averages. This does not show the distribution of thing between people. For an example, suppose in a country, the annual income of a fruit vendor is ₹50,000 while an MNC employee earns an annual package of ₹6,00,000. The average income of this country, therefore, will be ₹3,25,000. Both the individuals have a big difference in income but the average gives a misleading picture. The actual income or status remains unknown. One can clearly consider this as a rich country thereby ignoring the income disparity between two individuals. Averages are useful for comparison; they also hide disparities.
Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
When the labour force of a country does not get adequate opportunities for employment, this situation is called open unemployment. The Industrial sector of our country suffers most from this type of unemployment. This is also found among the landless agricultural labourers in rural areas. This kind of unemployment exists due to lack of resources.
When people are visibly employed but actually don’t have full time employment and more people are engaged in work than required without increasing the production, it is call disguised employment. This type of unemployment is generally found in unorganized sector where either work is not regularly available or too many people are employed for the same work that does not require so many hands. The absence of alternative employment opportunities leads to this situation.
Analyse the role of credit for development.
Credit which is available at reasonable interest rate plays a crucial role in the country’s development. The requirement for loans is in a huge number for various economic activities. The credit boosts the business and helps people to meet the regular expenses of production. This opens up opportunities in the market for people looking to setup a small business. Credit helps in expansion of one’s business, farmers can grow a variety of crops, procure equipment for farming, send their children for higher education etc. Students get a loan without collateral for higher education which again leads to the development of the nation. In this way, credit plays a vital role in the development of a country.
Why do developed countries want developing countries to liberalise their trade and investment? What do you think should the developing countries demand in return?
Developed countries want developing countries to liberalise their trade as well as investment because then the MNCs of the developed countries can set up their factories in less-expensive developing countries, and then increase their profits, lowering the manufacturing costs and the same sale price. If the Indian government imposes a tax on imported goods, then the price of the goods will be higher for the consumer. As a result, the consumer will choose buying the goods produced in the local market. Subsequently, there will be no demand for the goods that are imported and developed countries will not able to sell their goods in developing countries.
In return for liberalisation of trade laws, the producers of the developing countries are asking for a ‘fair trade’. The developing countries should demand for some type of protection of domestic producers from competition created by imported goods. Moreover, charges should be levied on MNCs looking to set up base in developing nations. MNC’s setting up their bases in developing countries should also be forced to work for the development of the country.
Explain the need for consumer consciousness by giving two examples.
Consumer consciousness is self-awareness of your right as a consumer while buying any goods or services. Consumers have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and delivery of services that are hazardous to life and property.
Example: The ISI and Agmark logos are a proof of quality certification on certain classes of products. Consumer must look for such certifications while purchasing items requiring these marks.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne and Germania were respective female allegories for the French and the German nation. They stood as personifications of ideals like ‘liberty’ and ‘the republic’. The importance of the way in which they were portrayed lay in the fact that the public could identify with their symbolic meaning, and this would instil a sense of national unity in them.
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because it was done in revolt against a commodity—salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt, and the government monopoly over its production was a severely oppressive administrative move. The Salt March was effective also because Gandhi ji met a large number of commoners during the march and he taught them the true meaning of swaraj and non-violence. By peacefully defying a law and making salt against government orders, Gandhi ji set forth an example to the whole nation of how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner. This also led to the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are trade flows, human capital flows and capital flows or investments. These can be explained as—the trade in agricultural products, migration of labour, and financial loans to and from other nations.
India was a hub of trade in the pre-modern world, and it exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe. Many different foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies and sweet potatoes came to India from the Americas after Columbus discovered it.
In the field of labour, indentured labour was provided for mines, plantations and factories abroad, in huge numbers, in the nineteenth century. This was an instrument of colonial domination by the British.
Lastly, Britain took generous loans from USA to finance the World War. Since India was an English colony, the impact of these loan debts was felt in India too. The British government increased taxes, interest rates, and lowered the prices of products it bought from the colony. Indirectly, but strongly, this affected the Indian economy and people.
Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association. Why? Give Reason?
Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association because he considered these to be powerful modes of expression and cultivation of public opinion. The denial of these freedoms was not compatible with the idea of self rule and independence. Hence, the fight for these freedoms, according to him, was intrinsically a fight for Swaraj or self rule.
Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
About 45% of land is used as net sown area, i.e. for farming. About 22% of the land is under forest and the rest of the land is used for various purposes; like housing, recreation and industrial activities. Increasing population and subsequent increase in demand for resources is the main reason that forested land has not increased much during this period.
What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
The variety of flora and fauna in a given geographical area is called biodiversity of that area. Each species on this earth lives in a system of interdependencies on various biotic and abiotic factors. Human beings also depend on several biotic and abiotic factors for their survival. We may be directly taking some resources from certain species, but we indirectly depend on many other species. Hence, biodiversity is important for human lives.
How does Panchayati Raj (Rural local government) work?
Group of each village have a panchayat.
President or Sarpanch.
Directly elected by the people.
Works under the supervision of gramasabha (all voters of the village).
Meets twice or thrice a year to approve the budget of Grama Panchayat.
Why is power sharing desirable? Explain a three forms of powers sharing in modern democracies with example.
To reduce the possibility of conflicts between different social groups and ensure political stability power sharing is desirable. Different forms of power sharing are as under.
Horizontal distribution of power is shared among different organs of government such as Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. Vertical distribution of power. Power can be shared among governments at different levels such as central Govt; state Govt. and Local Govt. Power may also be shared among different social groups. Ex. Religious and linguistic groups, community government in Belgium etc. Power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political
parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power.
When does a social difference become a social division?
When different social differences overlap, one particular social difference gains in prominence. This leads to the creation of social division and tension. For example, in Northern Ireland, the social differences of class and religion overlap each other. The Catholics are usually the ones who are poor, while the protestants are the ones who are well off. The religious differences are accentuated by this overlap. As a result, there are conflicts between the two religious groups.
What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?
When it comes to representation of women in legislative bodies, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world. Women’s representation has always been less than 10% in Lok Sabha and 5% in the State Assemblies.
On the other hand, the situation is different in the case of local government bodies. As one-third of seats in local government bodies (panchayats and municipalities) is reserved for women, there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.
What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.
A pressure group is an organisation which attempts to influence government policies through protests and demonstrations. Pressure groups are formed when people with similar opinions get together for similar objectives. Examples of pressure groups are FEDECOR and BAMCEF.
Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well?
Some reforms which could strengthen political parties are:
A law should be established to regulate the internal affairs of parties, thereby making them more transparent.
Women should be given at least one-third tickets.
The state should fund election campaigns, thereby eliminating lobbying groups and unfair competition.
Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens. Give reason.
Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens. This statement is incorrect. The Minimum Wages Act enacted by the government and other policies which regulate the basic price at which agricultural producers and small industries sell their goods, have helped increase the per capita income of the country, thereby making its citizens more prosperous.
What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Water scarcity or water stress occurs when water availability is not enough to match the demand for water. It is caused by an increase in population, growing demand for water, and unequal access to it.
Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
Rice is a staple food crop of India. It grows in the plains of north and north-east India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
What is a mineral?
A mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable interior structure. Minerals are formed by a combination of elements, and the mining of some minerals is very profitable.
Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
Human factors essential in deciding the location of an industry are − availability of cheap labour, availability of services such as consultants and financial advice, and resources for maintaining labour.
What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?
Business activity between two or more parties is called trade. The trade within the country is called local trade or domestic trade. The trade between two countries is called international trade.